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Geoinformation systems, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) or Spatial Information Systems (RIS) are information systems for recording, processing, organising, analysis and presentation of spatial dates. Geoinformation systems expand the possible uses of the classic map. In addition to visualisation, there are numerous functions for analysing geodata.

Data models describe which data can be stored in an information system and how this data is structured. It is therefore information about real objects (persons, parcels of land, rivers). These objects are described by selected attributes. For example, all parcels of land can be assigned the attributes "Gemarkungsnummer, Hallparcel number and type of use. The properties mentioned are those that uniquely identify an object of the type parcel (Bundesland, Gemarkung(e.g. parcel, parcel counter, parcel denominator in the format 00/0000/000/00000/00000) and describe its nature. One also speaks of "descriptive data", "thematic data", "factual data" or "attribute data".

In GIS, the so-called geometric data are compared to the factual data. They describe the geographical position, shape, orientation and size of objects. A distinction is made between vector data and raster data. Vector data represent the object geometry by means of graphic elements (e.g. points, lines, arcs). Raster or pixel data are usually created from digital images (map images or aerial or satellite photographs).

With vector data, the geometry of a parcel is given in the form of the boundary point coordinates and the geometry of the boundary lines (line, arc). The extract of a digital aerial photograph (usually in the form of an orthophoto) represents the parcel geometry in the form of raster data.

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